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Italian Journal of Psychology and Internet
Psicologia Online

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nelle pagine dell'archivio si ritrova la storia di
Italian Journal of Psychology and Internet - Psicologia Online
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martedì 5 agosto 2008

Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology

A Second Life for eHealth: Prospects for the Use of 3-D Virtual Worlds in Clinical Psychology

Alessandra Gorini1,2, MSc; Andrea Gaggioli1,3, PhD; Cinzia Vigna1; Giuseppe Riva1,3, PhD

1Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, Italy
2Research Institute Brain and Behaviour, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
3Psychology Department, Catholic University of Milan, Milan, Italy

Corresponding Author:

Alessandra Gorini, MSc

Applied Technology for Neuro-Psychology Lab
Istituto Auxologico Italiano
Via Pelizza da Volpedo, 41
20149 Milan
Phone: +39 02 619112892
Fax: +39 02 619112892
Email: alessandra.gorini [at] gmail.comalessandra.gorini [at]


The aim of the present paper is to describe the role played by three-dimensional (3-D) virtual worlds in eHealth applications, addressing some potential advantages and issues related to the use of this emerging medium in clinical practice. Due to the enormous diffusion of the World Wide Web (WWW), telepsychology, and telehealth in general, have become accepted and validated methods for the treatment of many different health care concerns. The introduction of the Web 2.0 has facilitated the development of new forms of collaborative interaction between multiple users based on 3-D virtual worlds. This paper describes the development and implementation of a form of tailored immersive e-therapy called p-health whose key factor is interreality, that is, the creation of a hybrid augmented experience merging physical and virtual worlds. We suggest that compared with conventional telehealth applications such as emails, chat, and videoconferences, the interaction between real and 3-D virtual worlds may convey greater feelings of presence, facilitate the clinical communication process, positively influence group processes and cohesiveness in group-based therapies, and foster higher levels of interpersonal trust between therapists and patients. However, challenges related to the potentially addictive nature of such virtual worlds and questions related to privacy and personal safety will also be discussed.

(J Med Internet Res 2008;10(3):e21)


3-D virtual worlds; virtual reality; eHealth; p-health; Second Life

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